|General Studies (Performances from 1660 to 1837)|
|Written by Administrator|
|Monday, 28 March 2005 06:40|
Thomas Betterton (1635-1710) was the outstanding actor of the post-Restoration period. In appearance he was athletic, slightly above middle height, with a tendency to stoutness; his voice was strong rather than melodious, but in recitation it was used with the greatest dexterity. Pepys, Pope, Steele, and Cibber all bestow lavish praise on his acting. His repertory included a large number of Shakespearean roles, many presented in versions adapted by Davenant, Dryden, Shadwell and Nahum Tate. Portrait by Godfrey Kneller. Picture and some data courtesy of the Yorck Project (Wikipedia) under Creative Commons Share Alike License.
PREFACE TO PERFORMANCES FROM 1660 TO 1837
This period saw drastic changes in the understanding and performance of Shakespeare. Theatres were tightly controlled and dominated by individual managers. Shakespeare was regarded as a resource rather than an authority and was boldly revised: King Lear was rewritten by Nahum Tate with a happy ending. The plots of many of the comedies and romances were similarly rebalanced. A history play like Richard III was refocused by Colley Cibber on Richard's dominance. Many lesser plays were rarely if ever performed. Productions were dominated by stars such as Thomas Betterton and David Garrick and actresses such as Mrs. Betterton early on and Sarah Siddons who later also achieved prominence. The production values of open-air theatres such as Shakespeare's Globe were abandoned in indoor theatres with sophisticated scenery. Only Henry VIII continued to be produced largely as first written and staged. The number of theatres and the range of audiences were severely limited. Professional consistency was rarely achieved and training was erratic—Garrick's first success as Richard III was claimed to be without previous stage experience. As early as Garrick, attempts were made to recover more of the original scripts, coupled with increasing respect for their author's professional insight. The Kembles increased this recovery. More intense performances such as those of Sarah Siddons and Edmund Kean characterized the Romantic Age.
Archer, William, and Robert W. Lowe, eds. Dramatic Essays, 3 vols. London: Walter Scott, 1895.
Asleson, Robyn, ed. Notorious Muse: The Actress in British Art and Culture, 1776-1812. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003.
Avery, Emmett, and Charles B. Hogan. The London Stage: A Calendar of Plays, Entertainments and Afterpieces, 1660-1800, 11 vols. Carbondale: University of Illinois Press, 1960-65.
Bains, Yashdip Singh. English Canadian Theatre, 1765-1826. New York: Peter Lang, 1998.
Bate, Jonathan. Shakespeare Constitutions: Politics, Theatre, Criticism 1730-1830. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.
Bell, John. [A Volume of Plates Issued as a Supplement to Bell's Edition of Shakespeare.] London: John Bell, 1773-6.
Bolton, Betsy. Women, Nationalism and the Romantic Stage: Theatre and Politics in Britain, 1780-1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Branam, George C. Eighteenth Century Adaptations of Shakespearean Tragedy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1956.
Bruntjen, S. H. A. John Boydell, 1719-1804: A Study of Art Patronage and Publishing in Georgian England.New York: Garland, 1985.
Burnim, Kalman A. and Philip H. Highfill, eds. John Bell, Patron of British Theatrical Portraiture: A Catalogue of the Theatrical Portraits in His Editions of Bell's Shakespeare and Bell's British Theatre. Carbondale: Southern Illinois Press, 1998.
Bush-Bailey, Gilli. Treading the Bawds: Actresses and Playwrights on the Late-Stuart Stage. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2006.
Cholij, Irena. Music in Eighteenth Century London Shakespeare Productions. [Ph.D. Dissertation.] London: University of London, 1995.
Cibber, Colley. "Thomas Betterton." In Specimens of English Dramatic Criticism XVII-XX Centuries, edited by A. C. Ward, 46-59. London: Oxford University Press, 1945.
Cooke, Charles. Memoirs of Charles Macklin. . . Forming an History of the Stage During Almost the Whole of the Last Century. London: J. Aspern, 1804.
Cordner, Michael, and Peter Holland. Players, Playwrights, Playhouses: Investigating Performance, 1660-1750. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
Craig, H. D. Ben Jonson: The Critical Heritage, 1599-1798. New York: Routledge, 1990.
Davies, Thomas. Dramatic Miscellanies Consisting of Critical Observations on Several Plays of Shakespeare: With a Review of his Principal Characters, and those of the various eminent writers as represented by Mr. Garrick and other celebrated Comedians with anecdotes of Dramatic Poets, Actors, etc. Dublin: S. Price, H. Whitestone, etc., 1784.
Davies, Thomas. "Garrick's First Performance in London." In Specimens of English Dramatic Criticism XVII-XX Centuries, edited by A. C. Ward, 60-2. London: Oxford University Press, 1945.
Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 89: Restoration and Eighteenth Century Dramatists, third series, edited by Paula R. Backscheider. New York: Gale, 1989.
Dobson, Michael. The Making of a National Poet: Shakespeare, Adaptation and Authorship, 1660-1769. London: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Donohue, Joseph W. Dramatic Character in the English Romantic Age. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1970.
Doran, Dr. J[ohn]. "Their Majesties' Servants" or Annals of the English Stage from Thomas Betterton to Edmund Kean: Actors, Authors, Audiences. London: John C. Ninuns, 1864, 1865; revised Robert W. Lowe, 1888.
Downes, J. Roscius Anglicanus, or, an Historical Review of the Stage, , edited by Montague Summers. London: Fortune, 1928; edited by J. Milhous and R. D. Hume, 1987.
Dugas, Don-John. Marketing the Bard: Shakespeare in Performance and Print 1660-1740. Columbia, MO; London: University of Missouri Press, 2006.
No content available at this time.
Fielding, Henry. "Mr. Partridge Sees Garrick." In Specimens of English Dramatic Criticism XVII-XX Centuries, edited by A. C. Ward, 63-8. London: Oxford University Press, 1945.
Findlater, Richard. The Player Kings. New York: Stein and Day, 1971.
Findlater, Richard. The Player Queens. New York: Taplinger Publishing Comany, 1977.
Fisher, Judith W. "Creating Another Identity: Aging Actresses in the Eighteenth Century." Journal of Aging and Identity 4, no. 2 (June 1999): 57-77.
Fisk, Deborah Payne, ed. Cambridge Companion to English Restoration Theatre. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Fitzgerald, Percy Hetherington. A New History of the English Stage, 2 vols. London: Tinsley Brothers, 1882.
Freeman, Arthur, ed. "An Essay Upon English Tragedy with Remarks upon the Abbe de Blanc's Observations on the English Stage" by William Guthrie Together with "An Attempte to Rescue that Aunciente English Poet and Play-Wrighte Maister Williaume Shakespere From the Maney Errours, faulsely charged on him, by Certaine New-fangled Wittes" by John Holt, [1747, 1749]. London: Frank Cass and Company Limited, 1971.
Friedman,Winifred. Boydell's Shakespeare Gallery. New York: Garland, 1976.
Genest, John. Some Account of the English Stage from the Restoration in 1660 to 1830, 10 vols. Bath: H. E. Carrington, 1832.
[Gentleman, Francis.] The Dramatic Censor; or, Critical Companion, 2 vols. London: J. Bell and C. Etherington, 1770.
Golder, John. Shakespeare for the Age of Reason: The Earliest Stage Adaptations of Jean-Francois Ducis, 1769-1793. Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, 1992.
Gray, Charles H. Theatrical Criticism in London to 1795. New York: Columbia University Press, 1931.
Greene, John C. and Gladys L. H. Clark. The Dublin Stage, 1720-1745: A Calendar of Plays, Entertainments, and Afterpieces. Cranbury, NJ: Lehigh University, 1993.
Greene, John C. Theatre in Belfast, 1736-1800. Cranbury, NJ: Lehigh University, 2000.
[Haslewood, Joseph.] The Secret History of the Green Rooms: containing Authentic Memoirs of the Actors and Actresses in the Three Theatres Royal, 2 vols. London: Printed for J. Ridgway, J. Forbes and H.D. Symmonds, 1790.
Highfill, Philip, Jr., Kalman A. Bumim, and Edward A. Langhans. A Biographical Dictionary of Actors, Actresses, Musicians, and Other Stage Personnel in London, 1660-1800, 16 vols. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1973-93.
Hogan, Charles B. Shakespeare in the Theatre: A Record of Performances in London, 1701-1800, 2 Vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1952-57.
Hotson, Leslie. The Commonwealth and Restoration Stage. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1928.
Howe, Elizabeth. The First English Actresses: Women and Drama 1660-1700. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
No content available at this time.
Jackson, John. The History of the Scottish Stage, from its First Establishment to the Present Time. Edinburgh: Thoemmes Press, 1793.
Johnson, Odai, William J. Burling, and James A. Coombs. The Colonial American Stage, 1665-1774: A Documentary Calendar. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2001.
Johnson, Samuel. Johnson on Shakespeare, edited by Walter Raleigh. London: Oxford University Press, 1908.
Jusserand, Jean Jules. Shakespeare en France sous l'ancien regime. Paris: Colin, 1898.
Kahn, Victoria. Machiavellian Rhetoric from the Counter-Refomation to Milton. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.
Kelly, Michael. Reminiscences of Michael Kelly, of the King's Theatre, and Theatre Royal Drury Lane: Including a period of nearly half a century; with original anecdotes of many distinguished persons, political, literary, and musical. London: H. Colburn, 1826.
Lamb, Charles. "On the Tragedies of Shakespeare, Considered with Reference to Their Fitness for Stage Representation." In Shakespeare Criticism: A Selection, edited by D. Nichol Smith, 190-212. London: Oxford University Press, 1916.
Langbaine, Gerard. Lives and characters of the English dramatick poets: also an exact account of all the plays that were ever yet printed in the English tongue, their double titles, the places where acted, the dates when printed, etc. Oxford: L[eonard] L[ichfield] for Gorge West & Henry Clements, 1691.
Loundsbury, Thomas R. Shakespeare and Voltaire. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1902.
Lowenthal, Cynthia. Performing Identities on the Restoration Stage. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2003.
Macey, Samuel L. "The Introduction of Shakespeare into Germany in the Second Half of the Eighteenth Century." Eighteenth-Century Studies 5 (1972): 261-69.
MacGregor-Hastie, Roy, Nell Gwyn, London: R. Hale, 1987.
Marshall, Gail, ed. Lives of Shakespeare Actors, 3 vols. London: Pickering and Chatto, 2009.
McDowell, Judith H. "Translations, Adaptations, and Imitations of Shakespeare in Eighteenth-Century France." Arlington Quarterly 3, no. 1 (1971): 140-59.
Marsden, Jean I. The Re-Imagined Text: Shakespeare, Adaptation and Eighteenth Century Literary Theory. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1995.
Monaco, Marion. Shakespeare on the French Stage in the Eighteenth Century. Paris: Didier, 1974.
Moody, Jane, and Daniel O'Quinn, eds. The Cambridge Companion to British Theatre 1730-1830. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Muir, Kenneth, Jay Halio, and D. J. Palmer, eds. Shakespeare: Man of the Theatre. Newark University Press, 1983.
Murray, Barbara. Restoration Shakespeare: Viewing the Voice. Cranbury, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2004.
Murray, Barbara, ed. Shakespeare Adaptations from the Restoration: Five Plays. Cranbury, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2005.
Murray, Timothy. Theatrical Legitimation: Allegories of Genius in Seventeenth-Century England and France. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987.
Nelson, Alan H. Early Cambridge Theatres: College, University and Town Stages 1464-1720. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Nettleton, George Henry. English Drama of the Restoration and Eighteenth Century (1642-1780). London: Macmillan, 1914.
Noyes, Robert Gales. The Thespian Mirror: Shakespeare in the Eighteenth -Century Novel. Providence, RI: Brown University Press, 1953.
Nussbaum, Felicity. Rival Queens: Actresses, Performance and the Eighteenth Century British Theatre. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010.
Odell, George C. D. Shakespeare from Betterton to Irving. 2 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's, 1920. Reprinted with new Introduction by Robert H. Ball, New York: Dover, 1966.
Odell, George C. D. Annals of the New York Stage. New York: Columbia University Press, 1927-49.
Oulton, Walley Chamberlain. The History of the Theatres of London: containing an annual register of all the new and revived tragedies, comedies, operas, farces, pantomimes, &c., that have been performed at the Theatres-Royal, in London, from the year 1771 to 1795. London: Martin and Bain, 1796.
Oxberry, William. Dramatic Biography and Historic Anecdotes, 5 Vols. London: D. Virtue, 1825-6.
Pane, R. U. English Translations from the Spanish 1484-1943. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1944.
Pape, Walter, and Frederick Burwick, eds. Boydell Shakespeare Gallery. Bottrop: Pomp, 1996.
Pepys, Samuel. "London Theatres in the 1660s." In Specimens of English Dramatic Criticism XVII-XX Centuries, edited by A. C. Ward, 21-43. London: Oxford University Press, 1945.
Quinsey, Katherine M., ed. Broken Boundaries: Women and Feminism in Restoration Drama. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1996.
Ritchie, Fiona, & Peter Sabor, eds. Shakespeare in the Eighteenth Century, Cambridge and New York: Cambridge Universsity Press, 20-12
Rosenfeld, Sybil. Temples of Thespis: Some Private Theatres and Theatricals in England and Wales, 1700-1820. London: Society for Theatrical Research, 1978.
Russell, W. Clark. Representative Actors: a Collection of Criticisms, Anecdotes etc. referring to Many Celebrated British Actors from the 16th to the Present Century. London: Frederck Warne, 1850.
Scheil, Katherine West. The Taste of the Town: Shakespearean Comedy and the early Eighteenth-Century Theatre. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press, 2003.
Schoester, Robert. United States Theatre: A Bibliography from the Beginning to 1990. Romsey, UK: Motley Press, 1993.
Schofield, Mary Anne, and Cecilia Macheski, eds. Curtain Calls: British and American Women and the Theater, 1660-1820. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1991.
Scott, W. S. The Georgian Theatre. London: John Westhouse, 1946.
Smith, David Nichol. Shakespeare in the Eighteenth Century. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1928.
Southern, Richard. The Georgian Playhouse. London: Pleiades, 1948.
Spencer, Christopher, ed. Five Restoration Adaptations of Shakespeare. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1965.
Spencer, Hazelton. Shakespeare Improved: The Restoration Versions in Quarto and on the Stage. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1927.
Steele, Sir Richard. "Betterton's Benefit." In Specimens of English Dramatic Criticism XVII-XX Centuries, edited by A. C. Ward, 44-5. London: Oxford University Press, 1945.
Summers, Montague. Restoration Theatre. London, 1934.
Summers, Montague, ed. Shakespeare Adaptations: "The Tempest," "The Mock Tempest," and "King Lear." New York: Haskell, 1966.
Taylor, Gary. Reinventing Shakespeare: A Cultural History from the Restoration to the Present. New York: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1989.
The Thespian Dictionary; or, dramatic biography of the eighteenth century; containing sketches of the lives, productions, & c.of all the principal managers, dramatists, composers, commentators, actors, and actresses, of the United Kingdom: interspersed with several original anecdotes; and forming a concise history of the English stage. London: Printed by J. Cundee for T. Hurst, 1802.
No content available at this time.top
Vanderhoff, George. Dramatic Reminiscences: Leaves from an Actor's Notebook. London, 1860.
Victor, Benjamin. The History of the Theatres of London and Dublin, from the Year 1730 to the Present Time: To which is added, an annual register of all the plays, &c., performed at the Theatres-Royal in London, from the year 1712 with occasional notes and anecdotes. London: Printed for T. Davies [etc.], 1761-71.
Ward, A. W. A History of English Dramatic Literature to the Death of Queen Anne. Revised edition 3 vols. London; New York: Frederick Ungar, 1899 and 1970.
Ward, John. Diary, edited by Charles Severn. London: H. Colburn, 1839.
Wemyss, Francis Courtney. Chronology of the American Stage, from 1752-1852. New York: O. A. Roorbach, c1852.
Wheeler, David. Eighteenth Century Adaptations of Shakespeare and the Example of John Dennis. Shakespeare Quarterly 36, no. 4 (Winter 1985): 438-449.
Wilkes, Thomas [pseudo. of Samuel Derrick]. A General View of the Stage. London: J. Coote, W. Whetstone, 1759.
Wilson, John Harold. All the King's Ladies: Actresses of the Restoration. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958.
Winter, William. The Life and Art of Edwin Booth. New York: Macmillan, 1893.
Winter, William. Shadows of the Stage. 3 Vols. New York: Macmillan and Company, 1892-1895.
Woo, Celestine. Romantic Actors and Bardolatry: Performing Shakespeare from Garrick to Kean. New York: Peter Lang, 2008.
Wood, William Burke. Personal Recollections of the Stage, Embracing Notices of Actors, Authors, and Auditors During a Period of Forty Years. Philadelphia: Henry Carey Baird, 1855.
Wright, James. Historia Histrionica: An Historical Account of the English Stage Shewing the Ancient Use, Improvement & Perfection of Dramatic Representations, in this Nation in a Dialogue of Plays and Players. London: G. Croon, 1699. Facsimile reprint. London: Ashee Facsimiles, 1872.
Wyndham, Henry Saxe. The Annals of Covent Garden Theatre from 1732 to 1897. 2 Vols. London: Chatto & Windus, 1906.
No content available at this time.
Zesmer, David M. Guide to Shakespeare. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1976.
Macbeth: Mrs. Yates as Lady Macbeth, London, Covent Garden Theatre, 1769.
|Last Updated on Thursday, 01 May 2014 14:21 Read : 4124 times|